Aug. 10 (Bloomberg) — Andrew Carnegie, who died 93 years ago tomorrow, remains a polarizing figure. He has been labeled a great industrialist by some, a robber baron by others. Some argue that his impoverished childhood and work in a cotton mill enhanced his sympathy for workers, while others contend the conditions in his steel mills were inhumane.

Even his unparalleled philanthropy — which continues to shape the American educational and cultural worlds to a remarkable degree — has sparked its share of criticism.

After immigrating to the U.S. from Scotland at age 12, Carnegie worked a series of low-wage jobs until landing a position as personal assistant and secretary to Thomas A. Scott, superintendent of the Pittsburgh division of the Pennsylvania Railroad.

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