In 2015, speaking at a Labor Day campaign event, former Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton told a crowd, "I'm going to make sure that some employers go to jail for wage theft." Her statement raised the possibility of incarceration for employment-related failures, which had traditionally been viewed as primarily the province of private civil litigation or regulatory enforcement.

Jailing an employer for, say, failing to provide sufficient fringe benefits on a government-funded job was, to many, an alarming prospect.

Clinton's statement was a nod to a movement, then in its early stages, to treat employers' failures to appropriately compensate workers as criminal rather than civil or regulatory failures. Whereas wage violations were previously handled primarily via audits by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) or its state equivalents, and usually resulted in employers being required to pay back wages, this movement saw such violations as equivalent to traditional theft and favored using the tools of criminal justice to address them.

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