Big U.S. banks face capital surcharges of as much as 4.5 percent as the Federal Reserve readies new capital rules that single out firms reliant on short-term market funding as posing the greatest systemic risk.

The Fed today proposed two methods to calculate what capital surcharges eight big U.S. firms will face on top of those already levied on the world's largest banks by international regulators. While the central bank stopped short of listing the surcharges for each firm, it said they probably will range from 1 percent to 4.5 percent based on 2013 data—exceeding the maximum of 2.5 percent set under global rules.

The aggregate amount the eight banks need to meet the surcharges, above current levels is $21 billion, Federal Reserve officials said.

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